Bolted joints are widely used in mechanical construction due to their ease of disassembly. When the bolting member is subjected to the alternating load, the pretightening force is gradually reduced, which may cause the interface contact performance to decrease, and the surface may be microslipped. Preload relaxation of threaded fasteners is the main factor that influences the joint failure under normal cyclic loading, but it is difficult to monitor the energy dissipation between the interface of the bolted joint. This paper presents an energy dissipation model for the bolted joint based on two-degree-of-freedom vibration differential mathematical model. The parameters of the model is calculated by using the fractal theory and differential operator method. The efficiency of the proposed model is verified by experiments. The results show that the experimental modal shape agrees well with the theoretical modal shape. According to the change of cyclic load and vibration frequency, the vibration response and the law of energy dissipation under different factors can be obtained. The results show that the vibration frequency and cyclic load are the main factors affecting the energy dissipation between interfaces. The energy dissipation of the contact surface of the bolted joints account for the main part of the energy dissipation of the bolted structure. The results provide a theoretical basis for reducing the looseness of the bolt connection and ensuring the reliability of the equipment.