Mechanical forces play an important role during brain development. In the early embryo, the anterior end of the neural tube enlarges and differentiates into the major brain subdivisions, including three expanding vesicles (forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain) separated by two constrictions. Once the anterior neuropore and the spinal neurocoel occlude, the brain tube undergoes further regional growth and expansion in response to increasing cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Although this is known to be a response to mechanical loads, the mechanical properties of the developing brain remain largely unknown. In this work, we measured regional opening angles (due to residual stress) and stiffness of the embryonic chick brain during Hamburger–Hamilton stages 11–13 (approximately 42–51 h incubation). Opening angles resulting from a radial cut on transverse brain slices were about 40–110 deg (depending on region and stage) and served as an indicator of circumferential residual stress. In addition, using a custom-made microindentation device and finite-element models, we determined regional indentation stiffness and material properties. The results indicate that the modulus is relatively independent of position and stage of development with the average shear modulus being about 220 Pa for stages 11–13 chick brains. Information on the regional material properties of the early embryonic brain will help illuminate the process of early brain morphogenesis.
Opening Angles and Material Properties of the Early Embryonic Chick Brain
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Xu, G., Kemp, P. S., Hwu, J. A., Beagley, A. M., Bayly, P. V., and Taber, L. A. (December 9, 2009). "Opening Angles and Material Properties of the Early Embryonic Chick Brain." ASME. J Biomech Eng. January 2010; 132(1): 011005. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4000169
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