For the free-form fabrication of various tissue constructs, three-dimensional (3D) additive printing technology has emerged as a promising approach for organ fabrication. This study aims to print a tube structure using a laser-assisted orifice-free printing technique and further investigate the effect of sodium alginate concentration on the tube wall thickness. Alginate tubes have been successfully printed. It is found that highly viscous materials can be laser printed into well-defined tube structures. A higher concentration solution such as the 8% sodium alginate solution leads to a thin wall, meaning a better resolution. Imaging analysis also illustrates that higher concentration solutions help develop smooth, slim jets upon the incidence of laser pulse.

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