0

IN THIS ISSUE


Select Articles

Mechanical Engineering. 2014;136(12):S4-S7. doi:10.1115/1.2014-Dec-5.
FREE TO VIEW

This article examines the impact of cybersecurity on the performance of industrial control systems (ICS). Control systems are embedded in essentially all engineered systems, such as our cars, homes, offices, industrial plants, and in critical infrastructures such as power plants, water treatment plants, and transportation systems. To ensure the security of ICS, particularly for critical infrastructures, standards are being developed to ensure ICS cybersecurity. The NIST ICS cybersecurity testbed will be constructed to facilitate the measurement of industrial process performance for systems instrumented with cybersecurity technologies. This testbed will allow for validation of existing security standards and guidelines and will allow researchers to provide valuable feedback to the community on methods, practices, and pitfalls when applying a cybersecurity program to an ICS. Additional work will be required to identify new use cases and pertinent performance metrics. The testbed will provide an opportunity for collaboration between government, research institutions, and industry partners. Interested parties are encouraged to contact the authors directly to discuss opportunities for collaboration.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Mechanical Engineering. 2014;136(12):S8-S15. doi:10.1115/1.2014-Dec-6.
FREE TO VIEW

This article describes opportunities for exploiting cyber, modeling, and estimation technical areas for advanced manufacturing in small lots. In particular, Cyber Enabled Manufacturing Systems (CeMs) for small lot manufacturing that incorporates a model of the process directly into the control algorithm are presented and discussed. The model enables the manufacturing monitoring and control algorithm to accommodate changing conditions without extensive additional experiments. One of the manufacturing processes currently being studied with this methodology is Vacuum Arc Remelting (VAR). Similar to Additive Manufacturing, VAR is a small lot, high-value manufacturing process. There is great opportunity for the control community to have a major impact on advanced manufacturing. This includes increasing the performance of mature manufacturing processes such as VAR or developing the critical control of emerging manufacturing processes like 3D printing. This opportunity is especially timely because of a nexus of multi-physics simulation software, modern estimation methods, and real-time computer architecture and hardware.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Mechanical Engineering. 2014;136(12):S16-S23. doi:10.1115/1.2014-Dec-7.
FREE TO VIEW

This article explores optimistic use of reconfigurable logic control for manufacturing systems. The rapid advancement of computing and networking technologies is enabling more data to be gathered, stored, and analyzed. It is possible for all of the machines in a manufacturing plant to be connected to the Internet of Things (IoT), with their production data stored either in a local database or in a cloud system. This opens up new avenues for online decision-making based on real-time data coming from the system. However, it also introduces significant cybersecurity challenges that will need to be addressed for successful deployment. Traditionally, security in a manufacturing plant was handled through physical separation and access gates with badge identification. Connecting the manufacturing plant to the Internet results in multiple opportunities for improving performance through better data analytics, as well as myriad challenges for safety, security, and privacy.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Mechanical Engineering. 2014;136(12):30-37. doi:10.1115/1.2014-Dec-1.
FREE TO VIEW

This article discusses the housing engineering genius that was put in while creating the House of Tomorrow and House of Future. The House of Tomorrow at the Chicago Century of Progress Exhibition hinted at a future where airplanes would be common. The circular plan led to some odd-shape rooms, however, and the floor-to-ceiling windows led to overheating. The House of the Future was designed around a central core that housed the plumbing, heating, and ventilation systems. From the kitchen, living space radiated outward in 250-square-foot pods. The interior was furnished to reflect the ultramodern tastes of a family living in 1986. In 2010, Van Zante gave a presentation on the Monsanto House of the Future. When it was completed, Disneyland visitors could tour the house of the future set in the far-off year 1986, complete with an imaginary family and futuristic household appliances such as microwave ovens. Green and solar and wireless are the real key elements to the home of the future.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Mechanical Engineering. 2014;136(12):38-43. doi:10.1115/1.2014-Dec-2.
FREE TO VIEW

This article focuses on the research and development projects to ensure homes and office buildings implement the concept of zero net energy, i.e. self-sufficient in energy buildings. Net-zero commercial construction has doubled since 2008. Reducing energy consumption on the inside depends on ultra-efficient appliances, high-performance heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, geothermal heat pumps, and lighting controls. Impressive advances are occurring in the field of solid-state lighting technology, which has the potential to reduce U.S. lighting energy usage by nearly 50%. The solar-energy technology company Vivint partnered with Garbett Homes to take on one of the biggest challenges for net-zero housing: creating designs that work in cold climates. The house that Vivint and Garbett built in Herriman, Utah, attained a Home Energy Rating System score of zero, indicating that the home is completely self-sustaining. The Habitat for Humanity house, in particular, shows how affordable zero net energy homes can be – especially for lower income homeowners.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Mechanical Engineering. 2014;136(12):44-47. doi:10.1115/1.2014-Dec-3.
FREE TO VIEW

This article focuses on various aspects of research theory and development work concerning accidental combustion in nuclear facility and oil industry pipelines. The theory has safety implications for any pipeline where explosive gases can form in liquid-filled systems, and is consistent with pipeline accidents in nuclear power plants, such as Three Mile Island. Nuclear reactor accidents deserve further investigation, since reactor fires and explosions were ignited by sources that were reported to be unknown. The NRC documented extensive actions to improve reactor safety after the Three Mile Island accident; however, this new ignition theory has yet to be fully evaluated with respect to off-normal reactor operations in the United States and abroad. Several nuclear reactor fires and explosions warrant consideration. This new theory confirms a source of ignition. Reactor explosions can be stopped to improve nuclear reactor safety, prevent deaths, and avoid environmental disasters.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
Mechanical Engineering. 2014;136(12):52-53. doi:10.1115/1.2014-Dec-4.
FREE TO VIEW

This GE study represents the first open literature report of plasma actuators actually used on gas turbine blading at representative engine flow conditions. The exact mechanisms of interaction between weakly ionized gas and neutral air are still under study; however, the collisional processes between them are responsible for the momentum transfer causing the plasma actuator flow. Tip clearance effects are especially critical in gas turbine high-pressure compressors, where they are a large source of aerodynamic loss and stall inducing blockage. In the Dusseldorf discussion on the GE paper, it has been reported that the electronics associated with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) are continuously being improved and miniaturized. Voltages needed are being reduced, and there is an unexplored area involving the great operational flexibility offered by frequency control. Given the flexible and superior response time of modern electronics, it should be possible to adjust DBD operation in response to transient flow phenomena associated with blade passing frequency.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In